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This research examined the pedagogical characteristics of emergency online learning in elementary schools. The study adds to the educational technology literature, exploring the opportunities and challenges for students by triangulating analysis of learning activities with perspectives of teachers, students, and parents. Thematic analysis of the interviews with 22 teachers, 21 students, and 10 parents revealed 913 statements grouped into categories and subcategories. Furthermore, 93 learning activities were analyzed based on the recent e-CSAMR framework that combines the SAMR and collaboration models. Participants reported development of student independence, responsibility, and learning autonomy, while adversely mentioned feelings of disconnection and lack of social communication. However, analysis of learning activities reflected mostly basic rather than advanced techno-pedagogical levels of the original SAMR model and revealed that they did not sufficiently incorporate collaborative activities or design of learning artifacts. Theoretical implications supported the e-CSAMR framework and identified optimal components for emergency learning within the framework. The results highlight the need to integrate collaborative learning into distance online learning and suggest that appropriate support and training can transform challenges into pedagogical opportunities.
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