Language learning apps for visually impaired users: a systematic review

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Heydy Robles
Adriana Perez
Karen Villalba
M.C. Delgado-Cañas
Elkin Villanueva
Conor Keogh
Miguel Jimeno


The purpose of this literature review is to identify, categorize, and critically appraise research papers related to mobile apps for visually impaired people in language learning. This study intended to identify the language skills, the affordances, and the limitations encountered while designing and implementing the apps. Hence, a systematic review in the Scopus database and the virtual libraries of IEEE, SAGE, ERIC, and Science Direct, adhering to the PRISMA methodology, produced 274 research papers, and after the application of the different phases, a detailed analysis was performed using 17 articles. The results revealed that Information Communication Technologies, assistive technologies, and electronic accessibility features contributed to the usability guidelines and the current evolution toward modern language learning mobile applications for visually impaired users. The revised work also revealed how writing, reading, and spelling became more demanding for this particular special need, and that grammar-based and traditional activities are replaced by other communicative approaches. The emphasis was on speaking and listening skills due to these being less demanding in terms of technical requirements. The findings of this review provide insights for instructional designers to construct inclusive language learning apps which consider the three essential dimensions needed to achieve it: technological, pedagogical and psychological, in addition to appropriate affordances necessary for both sighted and visually impaired users.


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Robles, H., Perez, A., Villalba, K., Delgado-Cañas, M., Villanueva, E., Keogh, C., & Jimeno, M. (2024). Language learning apps for visually impaired users: a systematic review. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 19, 012.