The cross-cultural validation of the technology-enhanced social constructivist learning environment questionnaire in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region
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This study’s primary aim is to validate a research instrument in Iraqi Kurdistan middle and secondary schools to explore learners’ perspectives concerning social constructivist learning environments and e-learning outcomes. The research instrument was updated and devised based on Aldridge, Fraser, Taylor, and Chen's (Aldridge et al., International Journal of Science Education 22:37–55, 2000) Constructivist Learning Environment (CLES) Survey. Additionally, it also contains two newly developed rating scales that have been taken from Luckay and Laugksch (Luckay and Laugksch, Research in Science Education 45:1–22, 2015), and a perceived e-learning outcomes scale adopted from Sultan, Woods, and Koo (Sultan et al., Educational Technology and Society 14:149–163, 2011). The instrument included seven prominent social constructivist learning dimensions and plus perceived e-learning outcomes, namely: Respect for Difference, Learner Investigation, Critical Voice, Learner Negotiation, Individual Relevance, Shared Control, Uncertainty and Perceived e-Learning Outcomes. For this study, empirical data were gathered from 1289 upper primary and secondary school students in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region. The research instrument possessed factor structure, discriminant validity, and internal consistency reliability based on the results of data analysis. Consequently, the validity and reliability of Arabic language and Kurdish language versions of the survey were verified. Hence, the principal data are sufficient for additional empirical research involving path model evaluation in order to discern any correlations between the variables included in the research model.
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