Developing an interactive PBL environment via persuasive gamify elements: a scoping review

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Azril Shahreez Abdul Ghani
Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim
Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff
Siti Nurma Hanim HadieView


The application of gamified elements to PBL to promote student engagement has not
been systematically described. Hence, we conducted a review based on Arksey and
O’Malley’s five-stage scoping review framework, involving research question identification,
relevant study identification, study selection, data charting, and result collating
and reporting. We searched three databases using five search terms combined with a
Boolean operator: “problem-based learning” AND “persuasive OR gamify OR gamification
OR game”. The initial pool of 5532 sources was evaluated according to the eligibility
criteria, and 14 original articles were selected for the final data extraction. A content
analysis was performed, and several persuasive gamification elements for PBL were
identified. The results were reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic
Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram. The analysis unearthed six
main categories of persuasive gamification elements, which have been proven to be
effective in the achievement of learning outcomes: high-fidelity simulation, inquisitive
exploration, collaborative learning, interactive instruction, guidance and feedback, and
rewards. These findings highlight the persuasive gamify elements that can be incorporated
to support the active learning and engagement of students in PBL, thus preparing
them to be lifelong, self-directed learners.


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How to Cite
Ghani, A. S. A., Rahim, A. F. A., Yusoff, M. S. B., & HadieView , S. N. H. (2022). Developing an interactive PBL environment via persuasive gamify elements: a scoping review. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 17. Retrieved from